The Moedim

Yom Kippurim

Meeting Times [מוֹעֵד H4150] – (Seasons)
The sun, moon, and stars indicate set appointments when Yahweh will show up to interact with His people. The Older Covenant feasts, Yahweh’s meeting times (seasons), are determined by the cycles of the moon. The word translated feasts is the Hebrew word, מוֹעֵד Moed. Moed means a divine appointment. In other words: a fixed time or season, specifically a festival.

Moed [מוֹעֵד H4150]
• At this set time – Genesis 17:21, 21:2; Exodus 9:5
• At the appointed time – Genesis 18:14
• An appointed season – Exodus 13:10; Numbers 9:2, 9:3, 9:7, 9:13; Deuteronomy 16:6
• An appointed place (tabernacle / tent of the congregation) – Numerous Exodus, Leviticus passages.

In Greek: Chronos [χρόνος G5550] — time either long or short – time.
Kairos [καιρός G2540] – a fixed and definite time – season.

It is not for you to know the timesG5550 or the season G2540 . . .” – Acts 1:7
But of the times and the seasons . . .” – 1 Thessalonians 5:1

The Moedim were times when Yahweh appointed a מִקְרָא Miqrao. A miqrao is something called out. In other words: a public meeting, an assembly, a holy convocation, a reading, or a rehearsal. In other words, the feasts are a dress rehearsal for the coming of Yeshua. The moedim of Israel have a practical, a symbolic, and a prophetic application.

Miqrao [מִקְרָא H4744]
• A holy convocation – Exodus 12:16; Leviticus 23:2-8; Numbers 28:18, 28:25, 29:12
• An assembly – Numbers 10:2; Isaiah 1:13, 4:5
• A reading – Nehemiah 8:8

The Three Commanded Moedim
Deuteronomy 16:16 – “Three times in a year all your males shall appear before the LORD your God in the place which He chooses, at the Feast of Unleavened Bread and at the Feast of Weeks and at the Feast of Booths, and they shall not appear before the LORD empty-handed.

The Three commanded Moedim are:
• Pesach (Passover), including Chag Ha’Matzot (Unleavened Bread) and Reishit Katzir (First Fruits)
• Shavuot (Pentecost)
• Sukkot (Tabernacles)

The Seven Moedim are:
• Pesach (Passover)
• Chag Ha’Matzot (Unleavened Bread)
• Reishit Katzir (First Fruits) Begins on the third day after Pesach.
• Shavuot (Pentecost)
• Yom Teruah (Trumpets)
• Yom Kippurim (Day of Atonements)
• Sukkot (Tabernacles)

The Sixth Holy Day
Leviticus 16:29-30 – “This shall be a permanent statute for you: in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, you shall humble your souls and not do any work, whether the native, or the alien who sojourns among you;  for it is on this day that atonement shall be made for you to cleanse you; you will be clean from all your sins.”

The Day of Atonements official Hebrew name is Yom Kippurim (יוֹם כִּפֻּר).  The word Yom (יוֹם H3117) simply means: day.  The word Kippur [כִּפֻּר H3725] means atonement, and kippurim means atonements.  Yom Kippurim atones only for sins between man and Yahweh, not for sins against another person.  To atone for sins against another person, you must first seek reconciliation with that person, righting the wrongs you committed against them if possible. That must all be done during the ten days between Yom Teruah (Rosh Hashanah) and Yom Kippurim, a period called the Days of Awe.

Key Word: Justification
Date Of  Moed: 10th Day of 7th Month.

Historical Background
Yom Kippurim is the feast celebrating the day when each person’s sins of the year were covered until payment could be made to fully remove the sins.  The day, however, includes much more than one single atonement. The High Priest (Kohen Gadol) would make atonement for the holy sanctuary, for the Tabernacle, and for the altar. He would also make atonement for the priests and for all the people (Leviticus 16:33).  Hence, Day of Atonements — Yom Kippurim.

According to Jewish tradition, on Yom Teruah Yahweh writes each person’s fate for the coming year in the Book of Life, but waits until the end of Yom Kippurim to seal the book with its verdicts. Three actions taken during the ten Days of Awe are believed to change these verdicts: repentance (teshuvah תשובה), prayer (tefillah תְּפִלָּה), and good deeds (tzedakah צדקה‎).  A person is expected to amend his or her behavior and ask forgiveness for sins committed against Yahweh and against others.  During the evening and day of Yom Kippurim both public and private petitions and confessions of guilt are made. At the end of Yom Kippurim, one expects that Yahweh has forgiven their sins and has declared them a righteous one (tzaddik צַדִּיק).

Yom Kippurim is said to be the Sabbath of Sabbaths and is observed by a twenty-five hour fast that begins prior to sunset on the evening before Yom Kippurim and ends shortly after nightfall on the day of Yom Kippurim.   No work is to be done during this time, and the fast is to be complete – no food, no beverage, not even any water.  The fast is also to include abstention from:
•  bathing or showering
•  washing of any kind (except for hand-washing after visiting the restroom)
•  applying perfumes, scented oils, lotion, deodorant, or cosmetics
•  wearing leather shoes (a sign of luxury)
•  marital sexual relations

During the twenty-five hour observance of Yom Kippurim there are five services:
•  Kol Nidrei  –  An evening service that marks the beginning of Yom Kippurim
•  Shacharit    –  An early morning service with six Torah readings
•  Musaf         –  A second morning service with a Torah reading of the Day of  Atonements scriptures
•  Mincha       –  An afternoon service with Torah reading (Leviticus 18) and a reading of the entire Book of Jonah
•  Neilah         –  A final service that marks the ending of Yom Kippurim

Modern Background
Hebrews 9:24-28 – “For Yeshua has not entered into the holy place made with human hands, (a mere copy of the Heavenly Most Holy Place). He has entered into Heaven itself, now to appear before Yahweh for us. Nor did he enter into Heaven to offer himself again and again, the way the Cohen Ha’Gadol (High Priest) enters the Most Holy Place every year with blood that is not his own. Otherwise Yeshua would have had to suffer many times since the creation of the world. But He has appeared once for all at the culmination of the ages to do away with sin by the sacrifice of himself. And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment, so Yeshua was once offered to bear the sins of many; and will appear a second time, not to deal with sin but to save those who are eagerly waiting for Him.”

The Yom Kippurim feast sacrifices parallel the work of Yeshua Ha’Mashiach as our Kohen Gadol, or High Priest, who is of the order of Malki-Tzedek.  Under the Older Covenant, the High Priest could only enter the Holy of Holies one day of the year, on Yom Kippurim .  Under the Newer Covenant, Yeshua entered the Holy of Holies in the Heavenly Temple, cleansed the altar with His blood, made atonement for all sin, and now sits at the right hand of Yahweh.

Under the Older Covenant, our sins were merely covered for only one year at a time.  Under the Newer Covenant, Yom Kippurim marks the day when all of our sins were fully taken away through the sacrifice of Yeshua on the cross.  Guilt and condemnation were fully removed.  The payment for our sins was paid in full by His shed blood.  A yearly sacrifice is no longer necessary.

The Feast of Yom Kippurim symbolizes the final writing of the verdict that each person listed in the Book of Life is a righteous one, a tzaddik צַדִּיק.   Atonements for the holy sanctuary, for the Tabernacle, for the altar, for the priests, and for all the people has been made.  The payment for all sin has been paid in full by the shed blood of Yeshua Ha’Mashiach.